Exploiting the temperature-memory effect in 3D printed auxetic structures

Stefano Pandini

from experimental design to analytic simulation.

The combined employ of the additive manufacturing approach with shape memory polymers (SMPs) is one of the possible strategies towards 4D-printing, in particular when aiming at the realization of highly effective shape shifting objects. SMPs are in fact active systems, capable of being temporarily fixed in a deformed configuration and to revert to the pristine shape upon application of a thermal stimulus. In addition, this response may be finely tuned by a proper combination of the thermo-mechanical history and of the material macromolecular architecture.

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Smart Structures via 4D printing of Hydrogel Materials

Nahin Islam Shiblee

Hydrogel actuators with soft-robotic capabilities and biomimetic advanced materials with simple and programmable fabrication processes are still in scarce. We describe a novel method for constructing a shape-memory-hydrogel-based bilayer system via 3D printing, resulting in a soft actuator that responds to methodical application of swelling and heat. Additionally,

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Material programming for 4D-printing

tiffany cheng

Material programming denotes a design method in which functions such as movement are encoded in the physical material and fabrication logic, in place of electronics and digital control. Plants respond to their surroundings because of their functionally graded internal structures — similarly, when materials are structured at the meso-scale, they can be programmed to change shape in response to the environment.

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Controlled shape changing components using 4D printing technology by fused filament fabrication

Bijaya Bikram Samal

The talk presents in detail 4D printing technology, its classification, and shape controlling techniques. The main focus is on using fused filament fabrication/ fused deposition modeling 3D printing for creating shape-changing structures. The mechanism of the shape memory effect and different programming strategies involved has been presented with various experimental case studies.

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Development of a new flexible wing concept for unmanned aerial vehicles using corrugated core made by 4D printing of composites


This paper presents the feasibility study of the application of the method of 4D printing of composites for the efficient manufacturing aircraft morphing wings. The wing has upper and lower skin, and a corrugated core. The corrugated core is made using the concept of 4D printing of composites. With this concept, there is no need for a mold with complex geometry to make the corrugated core. Instead, only a flat mold is used. A prototype of the wing was made and tested. It was shown that this wing can the sustain the load of a medium size Unmanned Aerial Vehicle, with flex angle up to 20 degrees.

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Who presented at previous editions


The first edition of the 4D Printing & Meta Materials conference was held in 2015. Since then many editions took place. Speakers from all over the world presented at our conferences and shared their knowledge. To get an overview of these editions please go to this page.

The majoity of speakers are coming from universities, but a growing number of companies are looking into applications of 4D Printing and / or Meta Materials. Also participants of the conference came mainly from Universities, but the trend is chaning.

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4D printing of composites.


A presentation by professor Suong Hoa, Director, Concordia Center for Composites (CONCOM), Canada.

4D printing of composites (abbreviated as 4DPC) is a manufacturing technique that can produce composite structures with complex geometries without the need for complex molds. The technique is also termed “Mouldless composite manufacturing”. This technique utilizes light weight, high strength, high stiffness composite materials that have been used to make light weight components for space structures, aircrafts, automobiles. wind turbine blades, and sports equipment.

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The status, barriers, challenges and future of 4D printing in design and engineering


A duo presentation by Frederic Demoly, Associate Professor at Université Bourgogne Franche-Comté, UTBM and Jean-Claude Andre, CNRS.

Over the past decades, the combination of technical/scientific advances in additive manufacturing (AM) and smart materials (SMs) domains has enabled the booming development of a new interdisciplinary converging research area: 4D printing.

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