Smart Structures via 4D printing of Hydrogel Materials

Nahin Islam Shiblee

Hydrogel actuators with soft-robotic capabilities and biomimetic advanced materials with simple and programmable fabrication processes are still in scarce. We describe a novel method for constructing a shape-memory-hydrogel-based bilayer system via 3D printing, resulting in a soft actuator that responds to methodical application of swelling and heat. Additionally,

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Material programming for 4D-printing

tiffany cheng

Material programming denotes a design method in which functions such as movement are encoded in the physical material and fabrication logic, in place of electronics and digital control. Plants respond to their surroundings because of their functionally graded internal structures — similarly, when materials are structured at the meso-scale, they can be programmed to change shape in response to the environment.

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Development of a new flexible wing concept for unmanned aerial vehicles using corrugated core made by 4D printing of composites


This paper presents the feasibility study of the application of the method of 4D printing of composites for the efficient manufacturing aircraft morphing wings. The wing has upper and lower skin, and a corrugated core. The corrugated core is made using the concept of 4D printing of composites. With this concept, there is no need for a mold with complex geometry to make the corrugated core. Instead, only a flat mold is used. A prototype of the wing was made and tested. It was shown that this wing can the sustain the load of a medium size Unmanned Aerial Vehicle, with flex angle up to 20 degrees.

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4D printing of composites.


A presentation by professor Suong Hoa, Director, Concordia Center for Composites (CONCOM), Canada.

4D printing of composites (abbreviated as 4DPC) is a manufacturing technique that can produce composite structures with complex geometries without the need for complex molds. The technique is also termed “Mouldless composite manufacturing”. This technique utilizes light weight, high strength, high stiffness composite materials that have been used to make light weight components for space structures, aircrafts, automobiles. wind turbine blades, and sports equipment.

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