4D printing or not 4D printing? Mechanically actuatable 3D scaffolds for regenerative medicine

Lorenzo Moroni

by Lorenzo Moroni, MERLN, Maastricht University

A key factor in scaffold-based tissue and organ regeneration relies on enhancing (stem) cell-material interactions to obtain the same original functionality. A possible way to build in functionality at the interface between materials and cells can be offered by 4D (bio)printing. Whether we are really witnessing 4D printing, a process which should be defined when the programmed temporal shape change happens during the 3D manufacturing itself, or not is still to be clarified in the field.

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